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Impact of temperature on photovoltaic power generation

The impact of lower temperatures on photovoltaic power generation cannot be ignored. In recent years, with global warming, winter temperatures have shown a significant downward trend.

First, we need to understand the working principle of photovoltaic panels. A photovoltaic panel is a device that utilizes semiconductor materials to absorb solar energy and convert it into electrical energy. In this process, the performance of the panel will be affected by the temperature.

In a higher temperature environment, the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic panel decreases; while in a lower temperature environment, the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic panel increases because the number of carriers in the photovoltaic panel increases, thus improving the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic panel. Some experimental data show that when the temperature drops from 25°C to -10°C, the power generation efficiency of PV panels can be increased by about 15%.

PV farm
PV farm

However, lower temperatures can also have some adverse effects on PV power generation. First, lower temperatures can cause the output voltage of the PV panel to increase. This is because at lower temperatures, the number of carriers in the PV panels increases, which causes the open-circuit voltage of the PV panels to rise. If the string voltage exceeds the maximum input voltage that the inverter can withstand, it will result in DC overvoltage protection of the inverter, which will affect the normal operation of the PV power system.

The operating cost of a PV power system is much lower than conventional power generation. Once the installation is complete and running smoothly, you can enjoy In addition, lower temperatures can make it difficult to start the inverter. Most of the inverters on the market have an operating temperature of -25℃~+60℃. In the harsh winter months, inverters can have problems starting up. Many inverters cannot start properly, thus affecting the power generation of the power station. Free power from the sun also reduces household expenses by selling excess power to the power company.

In response to the effects of lower temperatures, the following measures can be taken to improve the stability of the PV power generation system:

  1. Increase the starting temperature range of inverters.

By improving the design and production process of the inverter, it can start up normally even at lower temperatures. Also consider adding insulation around the inverter to prevent it from failing to start due to low temperatures.

  1. Reasonably configure the voltage level of the PV panel string.

When selecting the PV panel string, the voltage level should be reasonably configured according to the local climate conditions and the maximum input voltage of the inverter. This can effectively avoid the DC overvoltage protection problem of the inverter caused by too high string voltage.

In conclusion, the lowering of temperature will have a multifaceted impact on PV power generation. We should take appropriate measures to deal with the impact of lower temperatures. Ensure that the photovoltaic power generation system can still run stably in the case of lower temperatures, providing continuous clean energy for our production and life.

PV farm
PV farm

Lower temperatures have an impact on PV power generation, so what is the impact of high temperatures on PV power generation?

"Sustained high temperature weather, PV module power output presents a negative temperature coefficient relationship, the higher the temperature, the lower the output power, so power generation will be reduced accordingly." Long-term research on the development of the photovoltaic industry, Jiangsu Photovoltaic Industry Association Secretary General Fan Guoyuan said that the ideal working temperature of photovoltaic power generation components for about 25 ℃, the temperature rises 1 ℃, the output power will be reduced by about 0.35%, the power generation of photovoltaic power plant will also be reduced by about 0.35%.

Influence on the service life of core inverter components

In a PV system, the PV module is afraid of heat, and the inverter is also afraid of heat. The inverter is composed of many electronic components, and the main components will generate heat when working. Manufacturers will use heat sinks, fans and other forms in order to reduce the heat inside the machine during the design and development process. If the temperature of the inverter is too high, the performance of the components will be reduced, which will affect the life of the inverter.

Will take into account the ventilation and cooling problems, while in the wire, cable laying, array design and installation should take into account whether the temperature can be reasonably used to avoid the negative impact of temperature on the photovoltaic solar power plant.

Formation of hot spot effect affects module life

Excessively high localized temperatures will generate hot spots and affect the lifetime of PV modules. The hot spot effect refers to the fact that under certain conditions, a shaded solar cell module in a series branch circuit will be used as a load to consume the energy generated by other illuminated solar cell modules, and the shaded solar cell module will heat up at this time.

The hot spot effect will destroy the solar cells to a certain extent, part of the energy generated by the solar cells with light may be consumed by the shaded cells, and the hot spot effect in PV power plants will directly lead to a reduction in the service life of photovoltaic modules by 30%, which may result in module failure in the long run.

pv Panel
pv Panel

Generation of PID effect causing module failure

The PID effect, also known as potential-induced decay, is the phenomenon that the encapsulation materials of battery components and the materials on their upper and lower surfaces, and the ionic migration that occurs under the action of high voltages between the battery cells and their grounded metal frames, result in the phenomenon of component performance degradation. Improper cooling of photovoltaic power stations in hot weather is prone to PID effect, resulting in component failure.

China is a vast country, and most of the various climatic environments are present. As the temperature rises, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency also decreases. For example, in most parts of China due to the climate environment, there will be a common 2%, 3% temperature loss, in the tropical regions of the high temperature situation caused by the loss will reach the above three times or so, which directly leads to a reduction in the power station's power generation.

Photovoltaic power stations are susceptible to high temperature weather, to a certain extent, can be improved through reasonable system installation design. Ensure the ventilation and heat dissipation of modules and inverters, distribution boxes, according to the local situation reasonable design layout, timely removal of accumulated ash on the PV panels, to ensure that the module around the open without debris, pay attention to cable maintenance, in order to achieve the most ideal power generation revenue.

pv farm
pv farm

Boland Renewable Energy Co.,LTD As an integrated new energy power company, providing you with high quality integrated wind energy , solar energy and energy storage system solutions.Boland is now a subsidiary of CRRC, and is responsible for the overseas expansion of  CRRC's wind power & solar power business. We have a relatively complete internal supply chain, service network and excellent product quality and technology.

Boland Provide power plant EPC,Power plant investment and acquisition.

Please feel free contact us if you need any technical support.Cheers for our cooperation!



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