Следите за нами|

Parts of a wind turbine

Main components of a wind turbine

A wind turbine consists of five major components and many minor parts. The major components are the foundation, the tower, the rotor and hub (including the three blades), the nacelle and the generator. The installation of all these components requires the use of specific wind turbine-specific installation equipment.

1.Wind turbine foundation

For an onshore wind turbine its foundation is located on the ground; it is invisible because it is covered with dirt. It is a large, heavy concrete block that must be able to support the entire wind turbine and the forces acting on it. In the case of offshore wind turbines, the foundation is also invisible underwater. For offshore wind turbines located far from land, the foundation is floating but has sufficient mass to support and maintain the weight of the wind turbine as well as the forces acting on it.

2.Wind Turbine Tower

Most modern wind turbine towers are made of round steel tubes. A rule of thumb for wind turbine towers is that their height is the same as the diameter of the circle formed by the rotation of the blades of the turbine they carry. In general, the taller the turbine, the easier it is to capture high velocity winds. This is because the further we are from the ground, the stronger the wind (wind speeds vary at different heights).

wind tower
wind turbine tower

3.Rotor and hub of wind turbines

The rotor is the rotating part of the turbine; it consists of three blades and a central part, the hub, to which the blades are attached. The wind turbine blades are one of the most important parts of a wind turbine and are responsible for converting wind energy into rotational kinetic energy. Typically, wind turbine blades are made of high-strength fiberglass and carbon fibers to withstand strong winds and storms. While three blades are the most common, wind turbines do not always have to have three blades. However, three-blade rotors offer advantages such as optimal efficiency.

 The blades are not strong; they are hollow and made of composite materials that are both lightweight and strong. The trend is to make them bigger (for more power), lighter, and stronger. For aerodynamics, the blades are shaped like wings (like the wings of an airplane). In addition, they are not flat and will be designed with a twist between their root and tip. The blades can rotate up to 90° around their own axis. This movement is called pitch. The function of the hub is to hold the blades and allow them to rotate relative to the rest of the wind turbine body.

4.Wind turbine nacelle

The nacelle houses all the components of the wind turbine that need to be mounted on top. The nacelle of a wind turbine is a complex electromechanical system with a considerable number of components that work precisely and properly. The important wind turbine components are the generator and the main shaft, which transfers the energy from the collected wind to the generator through a gearbox. The gearbox is another important component of a wind turbine. Since a wind turbine must work downwind and needs to adjust its orientation to the wind direction, its rotor must be able to rotate relative to the tower, a rotational motion called yawing.

Wind turbine nacelle
Wind turbine nacelle

5.Wind turbine generators

A generator is a component that converts the mechanical energy of the rotor (obtained from the wind) into electrical energy. Generators have the same structure as electric motors. It is usually made of permanent magnets or electromagnets. Changes in generator speed affect the magnitude and stability of the output voltage

Although there are many different types of wind turbines, they can be summarized into two categories

Horizontal-axis wind turbines, where the rotation axis of the wind turbine is parallel to the wind direction.

Vertical-axis wind turbines, where the rotational axis of the wind turbine is perpendicular to the ground or the direction of the airflow.

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

Horizontal axis wind turbines are categorized into two types: lift type and drag type.

The lift type wind turbine rotates quickly and the drag type rotates slowly. For wind power generation, mostly lift type horizontal axis wind turbines are used. Most horizontal-axis wind turbines have a wind countermeasure, which can rotate with the change of wind direction. For small wind turbines, this wind countermeasure uses a rudder, while for large wind turbines, wind sensing elements are utilized as well as a drive mechanism consisting of a servomotor.

Wind turbines with the wind wheel in front of the tower are called upwind wind turbines, while those with the wind wheel behind the tower become downwind wind turbines. Horizontal axis wind turbines have many styles, some have wind turbines with reversed blades, some install multiple wind turbines on one tower to reduce the cost of the tower under the condition of a certain output power, and others have horizontal axis wind turbines that produce vortices around the wind turbine to concentrate the airflow and increase the speed of the airflow.

Vertical axis wind turbine

Vertical axis wind turbines do not need to wind when the wind direction changes, at this point relative to the horizontal axis wind turbines is a major advantage, it not only makes the structural design is simplified, but also reduces the gyroscopic force of the wind turbine to the wind.

There are several types of vertical-axis wind turbines that utilize drag rotation, including wind wheels made from flat plates and quilts, which are pure drag devices; S-shaped windmills, which have partial lift, but are still primarily drag devices. These devices have a large starting torque, but have a low tip-speed ratio and provide low power output for a given size, weight and cost of the wind turbine.

Double-Fed Induction Generator

With the development of power electronics technology, the double-fed induction generator (Double-Fed Induction Generator) is increasingly used in wind power generation. This technology is not overly dependent on the capacity of the battery, but rather from the excitation system, the excitation current is appropriately controlled, so as to achieve the purpose of outputting a constant frequency electrical energy. Doubly-fed induction generators are similar to asynchronous generators in structure, but in excitation doubly-fed generators use AC excitation.

Wind turbine
Wind turbine

We know that a pulsating magnetic potential can be decomposed into two rotating magnetic potentials in opposite directions, and the proper arrangement of three-phase windings can make the effect of one of the magnetic potentials dissipate, so that a rotating magnetic potential in space is obtained, which is equivalent to the rotor with DC excitation in a synchronous generator. The advantage of the doubly-fed generator lies in the fact that the frequency of the AC excitation is adjustable, which means that the frequency of the rotating excitation magnetic potential is adjustable. This means that the frequency of the rotating excitation magnetic potential is adjustable.

Thus, when the rotational speed of the prime mover is not constant, the frequency of the excitation current can be adjusted appropriately to meet the purpose of outputting constant-frequency electric power. Since the capacity of power electronic components is getting bigger and bigger, the regulation ability of the excitation system of doubly-fed generator sets is getting stronger and stronger, which makes it possible to increase the stand-alone capacity of doubly-fed machines. Although, some of the theories are still being perfected, the trend of the wide application of doubly-fed reactive generators will become more and more obvious.

A wind turbine is a complex system consisting of a number of components that work closely together for the purpose of converting wind energy into electrical energy. In addition to the components mentioned above, wind turbines include some important components as follows.

    Control system: The control system includes electronic components, sensors, controllers and software, etc., which are used to monitor and control the operation of the wind turbine. The control system is able to adjust the angle of the wind turbine blades and the rotational speed of the generator in real time to ensure the stable operation of the wind turbine.

    Tower: The tower is the support structure of the wind turbine, which is usually constructed by steel pipe or concrete. The height of the tower has a direct impact on the power output of the wind turbine, as the wind speed increases with height.

Pitch system: The pitch system is a device that controls the angle of the wind turbine blades, and can adjust the angle of the blades in real time according to the changes in wind speed in order to maximize the use of wind energy.

Wind speed sensor: The wind speed sensor is used to measure the wind speed and direction so that the control system can adjust the angle of the wind turbine blades and the rotational speed of the generator in time.

Gearbox: Wind turbines need to convert the low-speed motion of wind turbine rotation into high-speed motion, which requires a gearbox to accomplish. The gearbox consists of a series of gears and bearings that enable efficient energy conversion.

Brake System: The brake system is a device used to stop the wind turbine in an emergency. In the event of an emergency, the brake system can immediately stop the rotation of the wind turbine to ensure the safe operation of the wind turbine.

Wind turbine
Wind turbine

Cooling system: Wind turbines generate a lot of heat during operation, which needs to be dissipated through the cooling system. The cooling system includes fans, radiators, pumps and other equipment to ensure the stability of wind turbine operation for a long time.

Transmission system: the transmission system is the wind turbine generating power transmission to the grid equipment. The transmission system includes transformers, switchgear and cables, etc., which can realize the efficient transmission of electricity.

Conventional Facilities: In addition to the main components mentioned above, wind turbines require some conventional facilities such as lights, communication equipment and monitoring systems to ensure the operation and maintenance of the wind turbine.

Fillers: Fillers are materials used in wind turbines to reduce the rotational noise of the wind turbine. Fillers are usually made of soft materials such as foam or fiberglass.

Lubrication system: The lubrication system is used to lubricate between the various components in a wind turbine to reduce friction and wear. The lubrication system includes equipment such as oil pumps, tanks and lubricants.

 Anti-corrosion equipment: wind turbines are usually placed in open areas, exposed to harsh natural environments and susceptible to corrosion by the atmosphere, seawater and sunlight. Therefore, anti-corrosion equipment such as paint, anti-corrosion coatings and environmental protection materials are important to ensure the long-term operation of wind turbines.

 Ship system: For those wind turbines operating on the sea or coastline, ship system is an essential equipment. Ship systems include anchor chains, masts, rudders and navigation equipment, etc., which can ensure the stable operation of wind turbines at sea.

The components of a wind turbine are varied, with different parts working closely together to accomplish the task of converting wind energy into electricity. In the continuous development and progress of wind power technology, future wind turbines may have more complex components and more efficient working principles, providing more environmentally friendly and sustainable energy for human beings.

Wind turbine
Wind turbine

Boland Renewable Energy Co., LTD Как интегрированная новая энергетическая компания, предоставляющая вам высококачественные интегрированные решения для энергии ветра, солнечной энергии и систем хранения энергии. Boland теперь является дочерней компанией CRRC и отвечает за зарубежное расширение ветровой энергетики CRRC. и бизнес солнечной энергии. У нас есть относительно полная внутренняя цепочка поставок, сервисная сеть и отличное качество продукции и технологии.

Boland Обеспечить EPC электростанции, инвестиции и приобретение электростанции.

Пожалуйста, не стесняйтесь обращаться к нам, если вам нужна техническая поддержка. Приветствуем наше сотрудничество!

Моя электронная почта: marketing@boland-hydroturbine.com

Вашингтон: +8613923745989

Нажмите на страницу Facebook

Нажмите на сайт компании

Поделиться этой записью

Оставьте комментарий

Ваш адрес email не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *

Пролистать наверх
Этот веб-сайт использует файлы cookie, чтобы обеспечить вам лучший опытПолитика конфиденциальности
Чем мы можем вам помочь?